Problem with the Standard Differential
Consider a situation where a vehicle with one drive wheel is on a surface with good traction and the other wheel is on a slippery track. In a standard differential the left and right axle rotations are completely independent. Since one wheel is on a slippery track, the standard differential will make that wheel spin in excessive speed, while the good traction wheel will remain almost dead(a little presence of mind to imagine). This means high power supply to the slippery wheel and low power flow to the good traction wheel. So the vehicle won’t be able to move.
One way to overcome this problem is to limit the relative motion between the left and right axles. Limited slip differentials are introduced for this purpose. One of the most commonly used LSD technology is clutch-pack base .
BASIC COMPONENTS OF LSD
The basic components of a standard differential are shown below. It has got pinion gear, ring gear, case, spider gears and side gears.
Apart from its basic components a Limited slip differential has got a series of friction and steel plates packed between the side gear and the casing. Friction discs are having internal teeth and they are locked with the splines of the side gear. So the friction discs and the side gear will always move together.
Steels plates are having external tabs and are made to fit in the case groove. So they can rotate with the case.
If any of the clutch pack assembly is well pressed, the frictional force within them will make it move as a single solid unit. Since steel plates are locked with the case and friction discs with the side gear, in a well pressed clutch pack casing and the clutch pack will move together and motion from the casing is directly passed to the corresponding axle.
Space between the side gears is fitted with a pre-load spring. Pre load spring will always give a thrust force and will press clutch pack together.
You can note that spider and side gear are bevel gears. It has got one specialty. When torque is transmitted through a bevel gear system axial forces are also induced apart from the tangential force. The axial force tries to separate out the gears.
You can note that side gear and axle are 2 separate units. The side gear has got a small allowance for axial movement.
So during high torque transmission through spider-side gear arrangement, a high separating thrust force is also transmitted to the clutch pack. This force presses and locks the clutch pack assembly against wall of the casing.
Working of Limited Slip Differential
Now back to the initial problem. Since one wheel is on a high traction surface, the torque transmitted to it will be higher. So the thrust force developed due to the bevel gear separation action also will be high at that side. Thus clutch pack at high traction wheel side will be pressed firmly and clutch pack will be locked. So power from the differential casing will flow directly to high traction axle via clutch pack assembly.
On the other hand clutch pack on the low traction wheel side is not engaged yet, so power flow will be limited to that side. So the vehicle will be able to overcome the traction difference problem.